BOOK CONTENT

IIntroduction 13  
     
I A History of Measurement  15 
     
II  The “Power of Ten” Notation     17
  1. Standard notation  18
  2 Expressing numbers in long form 19
  3. Standard notation and the use of calculators 20
      Calculator displays 20
      Calculating powers 21
  4. Manipulation of exponents 22
  5. Worked examples 23
  6. The range of distances in the universe in “power of ten” notation 26
  Test 1 – “Power of ten” notation 27
      Level 1  27
      Level 2 28
      Level 3   29
     
III Physical Quantities, Units, Symbols and Prefixes 31
  1. Table 1 – SI Prefixes 32
  2. Rules relating to the presentation of SI quantities and their units 34
      Test 2A – SI prefixes 36
      Test 2B – SI prefixes 38
     
IV The International System of Units 39
  1. The three basic standards in the SI system of measurement 40
  2. Table 2 – Base and supplementary SI units 41
  3. Table 3 – Comparison of the SI units and the fps units of distance 43
  4. Table 4 – Derived SI units 46
  5. Definitions of the main SI standard units 48
  6. Table 5 – Other units 52
  7. Conversion charts 56
  8. The Greek alphabet  57
  Test 3 – Your vocabulary of units of measurement 58
     
V The Characteristics of the SI System 61
     
VI Conversion of Units 67
  1. Worked examples 67
  Test 4 – Conversion exercises 73
    Level 1 73
    Level 2 74
    Level 3  75
    Level 4 76
    Level 5 77
     
VII Measurement:  Accuracy, Significant Figures, Uncertainties 79
  1. Taking a reading 80
  2. Significant figures 81
  3. Accuracy and precision  81
  4. Absolute and relative uncertainties 82
  5. Significant figures and rounding off 83
  6. The number of significant figures in calculations  84
  7. Rounding off numbers 85
  8. Presentation of numbers containing the digit zero 86
  Test 5 – Significant figures  87
      Level 1 87
      Level 2  88
     
VIII Types of Errors and Uncertainties in  Measurement   89
  1. Systematic uncertainty (SU)  89
  2. Random uncertainty (RU) 90
  3. Mistake error and other errors 91
  4. Estimating uncertainty in a measured quantity due to its variation.
Conclusion
92
  5. Measuring instruments and uncertainties in measurements 94
    5.1 Measuring with instruments 94
    Table 6 – The average uncertainty of common instruments 96
    5.2 Indirect measurement  100
    Test 6 – Taking reading 104
     
IX Compound Errors 107
  1. Compound errors in additions and subtractions 107
  2. The number of significant figures in errors 107
  3. Compound errors in division and multiplication 108
  4. Compound errors in exponential expressions 110
  5. Constant and counted values 110
  6. Rounding off in complex mathematical operations 112
  7. Uncertainty in a calculated result 113
  Test 7 – Errors and uncertainties  114
     
X Estimation 117
  1. Estimating answers by approximating calculations 118
  2. Estimating answers in complex calculations by scientific notations 120
  Test 8 – Estimation exercises 122
      Level 1  122
      Level 2  123
  Test 9 – (Gu)es(s)timation 124
       
XI a) Presentation of a Laboratory Report  129
  General guidelines 129
       
XI b) Report Presentation; Overview 133
       
XII Various Stages in Practical Work 139
  Stage 1 – Formulating the aim of the experiment 139
  Stage 2 – Designing and planning the experiment  139
  Stage 3 – Performing the experiment 139
  Stage 4 – Analysing the observations and measurements 140
  Stage 5 – Drawing the conclusion  140
  Stage 6 – Writing the report 140
       
XIII Problems 141
       
XIV Physical Constants 143
       
XV Formulae for Area and Volume 145
       
XVI  Answers  147
  Test 1 – “Power of ten” notation   149
    Level 1  149
    Level 2  150
    Level 3 151
  Test 2A – SI prefixes  152
  Test 2B  – SI prefixes  153
  Test 3 – Your vocabulary of units of measurement  154
  Test 4 – Conversion exercises 155
    Level 1 155
    Level 2 155
    Level 3 156
    Level 4 157
    Level 5 158
  Test 5 – Significant figures 159
    Level 1 159
    Level 2 160
  Test 6 – Taking readings 161
  Test 7 – Errors and uncertainties 162
  Test 8 – Estimation exercises 166
    Level 1 166
    Level 2 167
  Test 9 – (Gu)es(s)timation   168
  Answers to puzzles 172
  Conversion Tables 175
  Bibliography 179
  US Metric Association on metric conversion     in USA 181
  Reviews 183
  Articles 185