# BOOK CONTENT

 IIntroduction 13 I A History of Measurement 15 II The “Power of Ten” Notation 17 1. Standard notation 18 2 Expressing numbers in long form 19 3. Standard notation and the use of calculators 20 Calculator displays 20 Calculating powers 21 4. Manipulation of exponents 22 5. Worked examples 23 6. The range of distances in the universe in “power of ten” notation 26 Test 1 – “Power of ten” notation 27 Level 1 27 Level 2 28 Level 3 29 III Physical Quantities, Units, Symbols and Prefixes 31 1. Table 1 – SI Prefixes 32 2. Rules relating to the presentation of SI quantities and their units 34 Test 2A – SI prefixes 36 Test 2B – SI prefixes 38 IV The International System of Units 39 1. The three basic standards in the SI system of measurement 40 2. Table 2 – Base and supplementary SI units 41 3. Table 3 – Comparison of the SI units and the fps units of distance 43 4. Table 4 – Derived SI units 46 5. Definitions of the main SI standard units 48 6. Table 5 – Other units 52 7. Conversion charts 56 8. The Greek alphabet 57 Test 3 – Your vocabulary of units of measurement 58 V The Characteristics of the SI System 61 VI Conversion of Units 67 1. Worked examples 67 Test 4 – Conversion exercises 73 Level 1 73 Level 2 74 Level 3 75 Level 4 76 Level 5 77 VII Measurement:  Accuracy, Significant Figures, Uncertainties 79 1. Taking a reading 80 2. Significant figures 81 3. Accuracy and precision 81 4. Absolute and relative uncertainties 82 5. Significant figures and rounding off 83 6. The number of significant figures in calculations 84 7. Rounding off numbers 85 8. Presentation of numbers containing the digit zero 86 Test 5 – Significant figures 87 Level 1 87 Level 2 88 VIII Types of Errors and Uncertainties in  Measurement 89 1. Systematic uncertainty (SU) 89 2. Random uncertainty (RU) 90 3. Mistake error and other errors 91 4. Estimating uncertainty in a measured quantity due to its variation. Conclusion 92 5. Measuring instruments and uncertainties in measurements 94 5.1 Measuring with instruments 94 Table 6 – The average uncertainty of common instruments 96 5.2 Indirect measurement 100 Test 6 – Taking reading 104 IX Compound Errors 107 1. Compound errors in additions and subtractions 107 2. The number of significant figures in errors 107 3. Compound errors in division and multiplication 108 4. Compound errors in exponential expressions 110 5. Constant and counted values 110 6. Rounding off in complex mathematical operations 112 7. Uncertainty in a calculated result 113 Test 7 – Errors and uncertainties 114 X Estimation 117 1. Estimating answers by approximating calculations 118 2. Estimating answers in complex calculations by scientific notations 120 Test 8 – Estimation exercises 122 Level 1 122 Level 2 123 Test 9 – (Gu)es(s)timation 124 XI a) Presentation of a Laboratory Report 129 General guidelines 129 XI b) Report Presentation; Overview 133 XII Various Stages in Practical Work 139 Stage 1 – Formulating the aim of the experiment 139 Stage 2 – Designing and planning the experiment 139 Stage 3 – Performing the experiment 139 Stage 4 – Analysing the observations and measurements 140 Stage 5 – Drawing the conclusion 140 Stage 6 – Writing the report 140 XIII Problems 141 XIV Physical Constants 143 XV Formulae for Area and Volume 145 XVI Answers 147 Test 1 – “Power of ten” notation 149 Level 1 149 Level 2 150 Level 3 151 Test 2A – SI prefixes 152 Test 2B  – SI prefixes 153 Test 3 – Your vocabulary of units of measurement 154 Test 4 – Conversion exercises 155 Level 1 155 Level 2 155 Level 3 156 Level 4 157 Level 5 158 Test 5 – Significant figures 159 Level 1 159 Level 2 160 Test 6 – Taking readings 161 Test 7 – Errors and uncertainties 162 Test 8 – Estimation exercises 166 Level 1 166 Level 2 167 Test 9 – (Gu)es(s)timation 168 Answers to puzzles 172 Conversion Tables 175 Bibliography 179 US Metric Association on metric conversion     in USA 181 Reviews 183 Articles 185